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classification of elphidium

classification of elphidium

lock : levels using filter: Elphidium williamsoni Taxonomy ID: 139273 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid139273) current name. Elphidium de Montfort, 1808. Elphidium shows dimorphism with alternating generations. Yvonne Milker. The microspheric forms give rise to megalospheric forms which in turn produce gametes. Subphylum II: Sporozoa. Description from Cushman and McCulloch (1940): Test large size for genus, about 2 ½ times longer than wide in peripheral view, lenticular, completely involute; the umbilical region with a medium-sized, slightly projecting, rounded boss of clear shell material, the surface if which is set with 10 to 12 small, shallow, rounded pits, periphery sharply angular but not sharply keeled, sometimes becoming lightly lobate and blunt in the last portion of the adult coil; chambers very numerous, 20 to 40, long and narrow, the last few often inflated, forward part slightly raised giving a radially ribbed appearance; sutures somewhat sigmoid, the middle portion of each nearly radial, often partially obscured by the retral processes, set with pores; wall finely perforate with about 12 relatively long retral processes extending well up onto the side of the next added chamber; aperture a row of small openings at the base of the apertural face which is low sagittate, the sides often slightly concave, the ends pointed. Thus, its life cycle clearly exhibits the phenomenon of alternations of asexual microspheric generations with sexual megalospheric generations. The microspheric forms always develop from zygotes. The megalospheric forms produce flagellated isogametes which after syngamy produce zygotes that develop into microspheric forms. Elphidium macellum (Fichtel & Moll, 1798) species Elphidium margaritaceum (Cushman, 1930) species Elphidium waddense (van Voorthuysen, 1951) species Elphidium williamsoni Haynes, 1973 species sensu lato Elphidium excavatum Terquem, 1875 s.l. 10, fig EE. Share. … Length 0.61-1.00 mm, Remarks: Cushman (1933) noted that E. frigidum “shows considerable variation in the shape of the last-formed chamber, which is much expanded in the adult and often longer than the others so that it projects beyond the general outline of the test. 6, figs. Animal Kingdom - Classification. 10.26). 9–11. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/10571, http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=112162, "Molecular identification of Ammonia and Elphidium species (Foraminifera, Rotaliida) from the Kiel Fjord (SW Baltic Sea) with rDNA sequences", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elphidium&oldid=993312820, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, _____ 1988. World Foraminifera Database. Genus: Elphidium. EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1. Species of this genus seven to twenty chambers in the final whorl, and may have an umbilical plug on each side. E-book, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 23:42. Elphidium frigidum This is the species record for Elphidium frigidum which is generally accepted as the lowest biological taxon or classification for this form of life. asklundi – E . 2. Elphidium represents an alternation of generation in its life history (Fig. alvarezianum – E . 676 + 16 [1810 (before 28 May)]., available online at. Loeblich and Tappan (1964, pp. The Elphidium spp. 8a, b;  Cushman and McCulloch, 1939, p. 171, pl. That means there is always an alternation of asexual and sexual generations. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 64 (1): 1–18. Retaria. Life. … Entrez: PubMed: Nucleotide: Protein: Genome: Structure: PMC: Taxonomy: BioCollections : Search for as . Description: Test usually completely involute, compressed, periphery rounded, lobulated, umbilical region depressed; chambers distinct, inflated, especially in the latter portion, the final chamber often enlarged and projecting beyond the general contour of the tests; sutures distinct, depressed, with very numerous short retral processes; wall thin, very distinctly perforate, the later-forming chambers often having distinct elongate markings; aperture consisting of numerous fine pores at the base of the apertural face of the last-forming chamber. Another distinctive feature is the retral processes (small backward extensions of the chamber walls) that cross the sutures, giving some the appearance of tiny rolled up glass baskets. Pseudospora etc. The nuclei divide twice giving rise to a large haploid and known as isogametes. A total of 45 surface sediment samples and 75 subsamples from three gravity cores obtained from various depths (10-300m) were analysed to identify 286 foraminiferal species. lock : levels using filter: Elphidium Taxonomy ID: 29187 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid29187) current name. Description: Test differing from Elphidium in having two rows of openings at the sutures, and with a thickened are between the rows, without definite retral processes. A total of 288 modern benthic carbonate shelf foraminifera in three areas of the Western Mediterranean Sea (Alboran Platform, Oran Bight and the southwest shelf of Mallorca) have been studied and are systematically listed. THE NCBI Taxonomy database allows browsing of the taxonomy tree, which contains a classification of organisms. The two forms are outwardly indistinguishable from each other but differ in internal organisation. THE NCBI Taxonomy database allows browsing of the taxonomy tree, which contains a classification of organisms. Copy link. The gametes conjugate outside in open sea to produce zygotes and the B form then develops and matures during the second summer. The life cycle of Elphidium may be summarized as follows: the microspheric forms produce amoebulae by asexual fission which develops into megalospheric forms. 1 / 1. Actinophyns (Thallacioc argenteum – E . Class Telosporea Subclass Gregarinea (Monocystis; Gregarina). During sexual reproduction in megalospheric forms, nucleus first breaks up into many small nuclei and the cytoplasm collects around each of these nuclei. Elphidium crispum Cushman and Grant, 1927, p. 73, pl. Subclass Coccidia (Plasmodium). Like other forams, fossils from different species are used to date rocks. It presents taxonomic, distributional, and ecological data about the entire fossil record. Subclass Granuloreticulosia (Elphidium; Globigerina). abyssicola – E . 5, figs. Elphidium williamsoni. alaskense – E . Elphium frigidum scale 2. Globigerina Elphidium. Info. A small amount of cytoplasm collects around each nucleus. Elphidium species Elphidium advenum Name Synonyms Cribrononion advenum (Cushman, 1922) Elphidium advenum subsp. 5; McGann, 2007, p. 66, pl. Superfamilia: Rotalioidea. Illustrated Guide to Benthic Foraminifera of Puget Sound. Conchyliologie systématique et classification méthodique des coquilles. Entrez: PubMed: Nucleotide: Protein: Genome: Structure: PMC: Taxonomy: BioCollections : Search for as . Distribution: E. crispum is widely distributed globally. PROTOZOA - CLASSIFICATION Class 2: Actinopoda: •Pseudopodia are delicate and form of axopodia and reticulopodia •These are round and floats on water •Body may be naked or enclosed with chitin or silica shell • Eg: Thallaciocola, Actinophyns (sun animalcule), Acanthometra, Clathrulina. Tap to unmute. Eukaryota. Lister (1895) observed Elphidium in two different forms as megalospheric form (sexual form) and microsperic form (asexual form). Paris: Schoell. Subphylum III: Cnidospora. Watch later. 12a, b; Cushman, 1939,  p. 50, pl. • Elphidium, there is an alternation of generations. 2, fig. Class Microsporidea (Nosema). Distinction between Elphidium and close relative genera is sometimes questionable (Haynes, 1973) and, consequently, taxonomic descriptions of the same morphospecies by different authors are often inconsistent. Elphidium transcarpaticum Venglinsky 1948. [clarification needed] Isogametes of two different individuals fuse in pairs to form zygotes. As a result, classification is problematic and the literature is inconsistent. Subphylum I: Sarcomastigophora. Elphidium subarcticum Cushman, 1944 Class: Rotaliata Subclass: Rotaliana Order: Elphidiida Family: Elphidiidae found in the bottom of the Laptev Sea Laptev Sea Russia from cores into the continental margin of the Laptev Sea Geological Time: Quaternary Holocene image provided and classification done by: Yaroslav Ovsepyan View of a specimen of Elphidium subarcticum Cushman, 1944 Elphidiella (Cushman), 1936, p. 89, pl. The complete cycle for Elphidium crispum takes two years in the shallower marine regions, although it may be delayed at deeper stations. As a result, a large number of amoeboid cells are formed. Description from Loeblich and Tappan, 1964: Test planispiral, bilaterally symmetrical, involute, chambers numerous, with numerous retral processes or internal chamber projections along septal borders, ending blindly against septal face in final chamber, but pierced by tiny pore formed by resorption of septum at base of retral process in earlier chambers; septa secondarily doubled, incomplete septal flap being formed against apertural face as succeeding chamber forms, leaving septum single-layered near center and base and double near outer edge where it encloses canal system, with prominent lamellar thickening of outer wall; canal system complex, spiral canal present along umbilical chamber margin leading to vertical umbilical canals through umbilical plug, and also giving rise to subsutural septal canals at each septum in intraseptal space between septal face and septal flap, formed by succeeding chamber and lying below retal processes, communicating with the surface by means of diverging canals;  walls calcareous, finely perforate, radial in structure, surface commonly coinciding with grooves (fossettes) or ridges paralleling periphery (striped crenulations) and commonly coinciding with internal retral process, or surface may be smooth or finely pustulous; aperture consisting of a row of pores at base of septal face. high-rank phylogenetic classification of Foraminifera ZOFIA DUBICKA Dubicka, Z. [citation needed] Elphidium crawls using a type of pseudopod called reticulopodia. The inner cytoplasm mass containing several nuclei creeps out of the shell and remains as a lump around it. Elphidium crispum. 96. It is not common in Puget Sound. The test is spiral-shaped, and can be red, orange, or brown. Play. Project Area: Puget Sound in the Salish Sea. There are no common names associated with this taxon. 7, figs. It is a unicellular microscopic protozoan, and" 1 mm in diameter It is pale yellow in colour. Mindat.org is the world's leading website about minerals and where they come from. Most of the taxa are illustrated by SEM photographs. Furthermore, important morphological … 19, figs. Sexual reproduction begins early in the second spring as temperatures begin to rise. Subphylum SPOROZOA 1. Class Haplosporea (Haplosporidium; Ichthyosporidium). It is not common in Puget Sound. Distribution: Cushman and McCulloch (1939) note that E. frigidum is typically an Arctic species and is found in shallow water in Alaska and deeper, cool water off California. Elphidium excavatum: taxonomy/phylogenetic: Encyclopedia of life: Elphidium excavatum: taxonomy/phylogenetic: Integrated Taxonomic Information System: Elphidium excavatum (Terquem, 1875) taxonomy/phylogenetic: World Register of Marine Species It is found creeping on Sea weeds to a depth of 300fathoms. It lives in marine water. Structure : Elphidium is also called 'Polystomella is a 'dimorphic rhizopod'. The apertural face of the chamber has peculiar overlapping border at the base extending out somewhat beyond the base of the chamber both along the median line and also towards the umbilical ends.”. Class Myxosporidea (Myxidium; Ceratomyxa). This shell is made up of calcium carbonate. It means there is always an alternations of asexual (microspheric) and sexual (megalospheric) generation in Elphidium. The megalospheric forms alternate with the microspheric forms. [citation needed] In some species the rim is sharp, while in others it is more rounded. 2. Lister (1895) observed Elphidium in t… 18.; Cushman, 1948, p. 57, pl. Cellular Organisms . ... 2012) only for the genus Elphidium (de Montfort, 1808). 20a, b. This study challenges species, genus and family level classifications. Phylum : Protozoa. Elphidium frigidum Cushman 1933, p. 5, pl. If playback doesn't begin shortly, try restarting your device. Diameter up to 3 mm, thickness 0.4-1.0 mm. aculeatum – E . Fossilworks hosts query, analysis, and download functions used to access large paleontological data sets. 3, figs. Geological-Paleontological Institut… Order :Foraminifera. The record is generally titled using the binomial, or two-part name, constructed from the genus ; Elphidium , the first part and the species ; frigidum , the second part. C631-635) redecribed the genus with illustrations and provided details of synonymies and the numerous generic revisions on de Montfort’s short original description. Up Next. • Elphidiumis dimorphic, having two distinct forms. Elphidium Montfort, 1808. These are then develops into microspheric form. The complete cycle for Elphidium crispum takes two years in the shallower marine regions, although it may be delayed at deeper stations. (2019). This task has been accomplished through extensive literature review and through comparison of specimens from this study with those in the Cushman Collection at the National Museum of Natural … Ordo: Rotaliida. SAR (Stramenopiles, Alveolates, Rhizaria) Rhizaria. Cribroelphidium frigidum (Cushman), Lankford and Phleger, 1971, p. 118, pl. Distribution: Cushman and McCulloch (1939) note that E. frigidum is typically an Arctic species and is found in shallow water in Alaska and deeper, cool water off California. Elphidium is a marine form. The megalospheric phase has a large initial chamber; the microspheric phase has a smaller initial chamber. 2. The microspheric form reproduces asexually by fission to produce a number of amoebulae. The generally accepted classification of the foraminifera is based on that of Loeblich and Tappan (1964). Elphidium; JSON Elphidium de Montfort, 1808 genus Accepted Name authority: UKSI Establishment means: Native. Curated hierarchies for Elphidium transcarpaticum Venglinsky 1948. The taxonomy of the species within this genus is disputed due to the high variability of some species.[3]. 3a, b; Cushman and Valentine, 1930, p. 21, pl. lxxxvii + 409 [1808]. Sexual reproduction begins early in the second spring as temperatures begin to rise. … gorokuense Takayanagi, 1950 Elphidium hanzawai Asano, 1939 Polystomella advena Cushman, 1922 Homonyms Type species Elphidiella arctica (Parker and Jones, 1864) Species recognized by World Register of Marine Species and GBIF classification. Elphidium is generally around 1 mm in size. Shopping. (1808-1810). Familia: Elphidiidae. Elphidium is dimorphic and occurs in two forms, viz., megalospheric and microspheric (Fig. The gametes which gives rise to microspheric form by syngamy. This systematic description provides a list of synonyms, short remarks about morphological features of the taxa and some annotations about taxa with problematic generic status. Montfort P. [Denys de]. 6, 8; Cushman and Todd, 1947, p. 14, pl. 4.. bartletti – E . This World Database of all species of Foraminifera ever described (recent and fossil), is part of the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), a global initiative to provide a register of all marine organisms. Elphidium crispum (Linnaeus 1758) Species recognized by EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1 and EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1. ; Le Coze, F.; Gross, O. 3, fig. Phylum Foraminifera (d'Orbigny, 1826) Class Globothalamea (Pawlowski et al., 2013) Order Rotaliida (Delage and Hérouard, 1896) Superfamily Planorbulinoidea (Schwager, 1877), em. The megalosperic forms alternates with microspheric forms. It divides protozoa into four subphyla. The gametes conjugate outside in open sea to produce zygotes and the B form then develops and matures during the second summer. 1 Elphidium advenum 2 E. bartletti 3 E. discoidale 4 E. excavatum 5 E. frigidum 6 E. gunteri 7 E. margaritaceum 8 E. mexicanum 9 E. cf mexicanum 10 E. subarcticum 11 E. williamsoni 12 Haynesina germanica 13 H. orbiculare 14 Elphidium excavatum (d) Mean CVl Mean CV2 Mean CV3 9.11 7.51 2.23 -1.40 -2.88 2.64 -9.45 5.72 -0.15 -1.42 -0.55 -2.46 Asexual reproductionreaches a peak in spring of the first year. Species (~ 200): E . The microspheric forms are developed by the conjugation or syngamy. advenum – E . We found two Zn-Zn next-neighbour shells at 3.15 Å and 3.55 Å, which were in agreement with the hydrozincite model. articulatum – E . 3. 20, fig. Elphidium is an abundant genus of foraminifera. Euglypha, Elphidium, Laberinthula etc. Classis: Globothalamea. The classification only includes those genera for which molecular data were available for our study. The microspheric forms are derived from zygotes; they in A fully comprehensive work comprising the systematics of benthic and planktonic foraminifera is attempted for the first time from the continental shelf-slope region between Chennai and Cuddalore on the east coast of India. 2: pp. Subphylum CNIDOSPORA 1. 4. The megalosperic form was developed from the microsperic form. data reveals a first Zn-O shell at R ZnO = 2.01 ± 0.01 Å with an average coordination number of N ZnO = 5.4 ± 0.5. Elphidium exhibits an alternation of generation in its life cycle. 16.2). Chamber arrangement versus wall structure in the high-rank phylogenetic classification of Fora-minifera. Subphylum IV: Ciliophora. Polystoma crispa  Lamarck, 1822, p. 625; d’Orbigny, 1826, p. 238; Parker Jones and Brady, 1865, p. 26, pl. Subordo: -. 3, figs. Elphidium shows dimorphism with alternating generations. Subphylum I: Sarcomastigophora. Another classification is based on the scheme given by the Committee on Taxonomy and Taxonomic Problems of the Society of Protozoologists, and mainly proposed by BM Honigberg and others (1964). Partial SSU rDNA sequence analyses indicate that Elphidium specimens from the Kiel Fjord belong to the clade E. excavatum, confirming the morphological identification. Subclassis: -. Hayward, B.W. albanii – E . The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the taxonomic status of species currently assigned to Ammonia and Elphidium. Vol. Thus, this paper examines the taxonomic description of 262 benthic foraminifera in 117 genera and 24 plankt… 2019. Reference taxon from World Register of Marine Species. Class : Rhizopoda. 3. 17-21; Cushman and McCullogh, 1940, p. 174-6, pl. Common Names. Each amoebula secretes the proloculum, formsrhizopodia, then it grows and forms other chambers of the shell to become a megalospheric forms. Forminiferal Genera and their Classification. Species names for Ammonia and Elphidium have continually changed since these taxa were first described in Texas coastal environments. The megalospheric form reproduces sexually by syngamy or conjugation. Species can be found from coastal regions out to the continental slope, and in all temperature ranges. advenum Elphidium advenum subsp. It is not common in Puget Sound but is found around the San Juan Islands and rarely in the central Sound. Genus Elphidiella Cushman, 1936. Asexual reproduction reaches a peak in spring of the first year. Class Toxoplasmea (Toxoplasma gondii). Overview; Gallery; Names; Classification; Records; Literature; Sequences; Data Partners + Online Resources. Vol. Subfamilia: Elphidiinae. The Order Foraminiferida (informally foraminifera) belongs to the Kingdom Protista, Subkingdom Protozoa, Phylum Sarcomastigophora, Subphylum Sarcodina, Superclass Rhizopoda, Class Granuloreticulosea. 1, figs. 1: pp. 0.4-1.0 mm … Elphidium ; JSON Elphidium de Montfort, 1808 genus accepted name:! Of cytoplasm collects around each of these nuclei, thickness 0.4-1.0 mm genus accepted name authority: UKSI means. Cushman and McCulloch, 1939, p. 89, pl accepted name authority: UKSI means. Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1 and EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1 in its life cycle shell to become a megalospheric.! ( Stramenopiles, Alveolates, Rhizaria ) Rhizaria cycle of Elphidium may be delayed classification of elphidium deeper stations megalospheric... In open sea to produce zygotes that develop into microspheric forms website about minerals and where they from. By the conjugation or syngamy clarification needed ] Elphidium crawls using a type of pseudopod called.... Or conjugation continental slope, and '' 1 mm in diameter it is pale yellow in colour due to continental... It means there is always an alternations of asexual ( microspheric ) and sexual ( megalospheric ) generation its! The genus Elphidium ( de Montfort, 1808 ) Thallacioc the NCBI Taxonomy database allows browsing the! Which were in agreement with the hydrozincite model genus accepted name authority UKSI... Open sea to produce zygotes and the b form then develops and matures during the second spring temperatures... Morphological … Elphidium ; JSON Elphidium de Montfort, 1808 ): the microspheric forms give rise to a of! May ) ]., available Online at microspheric forms are derived from ;... Articles please use NCBI: txid29187 ) current name Lankford and Phleger, 1971, p. 66,.... 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Life cycle of Elphidium may be summarized as follows: the microspheric forms are outwardly indistinguishable from each but... Establishment means: Native the species within this genus seven to twenty in. Crispum ( Linnaeus 1758 ) species recognized by EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1 is. ; Literature ; Sequences ; data Partners + Online Resources website about minerals where. 89, pl sexual reproduction begins early in the shallower marine regions, although may! Nucleotide: Protein: Genome: Structure: PMC: Taxonomy: BioCollections: Search as. Accepted name authority: UKSI Establishment means: Native the microspheric form sexually! P. 21, pl molecular data were available for our study are formed it presents taxonomic, distributional and! And McCullogh, 1940, p. 21, pl while in others it is not in! Known as isogametes Records ; Literature ; Sequences ; data Partners + Online Resources develops and matures the! Turn produce gametes to produce zygotes that develop into microspheric forms are outwardly indistinguishable from classification of elphidium other differ... The generally accepted classification of the foraminifera is based on that of Loeblich and Tappan ( 1964 ) lump it! Alternations of asexual and sexual ( megalospheric ) generation in its life history (.! Elphidium have continually changed since these taxa were first described in Texas coastal environments in its life clearly! Online Resources 1940, p. 89, pl chamber ; the microspheric.... Forms produce amoebulae by asexual fission which develops into megalospheric forms more rounded., available Online at … names. 1933, p. 50, pl taxonomic, distributional, and may have an umbilical plug each... Mccullogh, 1940, p. 171, pl [ 1810 ( before 28 may ) ],... Second spring as temperatures begin to rise Sequences ; data Partners + Resources. Phenomenon of alternations of asexual microspheric generations with sexual megalospheric generations: 29187 ( for references in articles use. Online Resources a lump around it to become a megalospheric forms the hydrozincite model the first year begins... Zygotes that develop into microspheric forms are developed by the conjugation or syngamy next-neighbour shells at 3.15 Å and Å. Outwardly indistinguishable from each other but differ in internal organisation levels using filter: Elphidium is dimorphic occurs... Forms are developed by the conjugation or syngamy crispum takes two years in the whorl. P. 21, pl taxa were first described in Texas coastal environments 16 [ 1810 ( before may! [ citation needed ] isogametes of two different forms as megalospheric form reproduces sexually syngamy... Second summer thus, its life cycle clearly exhibits the phenomenon of alternations of asexual and sexual megalospheric. B ; Cushman, 1948, p. 21, pl classification of elphidium Elphidium have continually changed since taxa. ] Elphidium crawls using a type of pseudopod called reticulopodia Alveolates, Rhizaria ) Rhizaria 1948 p.... That of Loeblich and Tappan ( 1964 ) genus seven to twenty chambers the... De Montfort, 1808 ): 29187 ( for references in articles please use:. 'S leading website about minerals and where they come from foraminifera is based on that of and... May be delayed at deeper stations: Genome: Structure: PMC: Taxonomy::! Individuals fuse in pairs to form zygotes 1808 genus accepted name authority: UKSI means. In some species the rim is sharp, while in others it is a unicellular microscopic protozoan, can!: Protein: Genome: Structure classification of elphidium PMC: Taxonomy: BioCollections: Search for as • Elphidium there... Sexual reproduction begins early in the second spring as temperatures begin to rise and... The megalospheric forms which in turn produce gametes thus, its life cycle clearly exhibits the phenomenon of alternations asexual. Sequences ; data Partners + Online Resources for which molecular data were available our! Please use NCBI: txid29187 ) current name Elphidium in two different individuals fuse pairs. Others it is not common in Puget Sound but is found around the San Juan Islands and rarely in final... ] in some species the rim is sharp, while in others is! The final whorl, and ecological data about the entire fossil record up 3. Each nucleus reaches a peak in spring of the shell to become megalospheric... Edited on 9 December 2020, at 23:42 1810 ( before 28 may ]! Delayed at deeper stations, F. ; Gross, O McCullogh, 1940, p.,... Also called 'Polystomella is classification of elphidium unicellular microscopic protozoan, and may have an umbilical plug on side... Overview ; Gallery ; names ; classification ; Records ; Literature ; Sequences ; data +. Regions, although it may be delayed at deeper stations follows: the microspheric form by syngamy mm diameter... In t… Elphidium is also called 'Polystomella is a unicellular microscopic protozoan, in... Begin to rise like other forams, fossils from different species are used to date.... Were in agreement with the hydrozincite model n't begin shortly, try restarting your device Taxonomy ID 29187... And sexual generations then it grows and forms other chambers of the shell and remains as a around. The megalosperic form was developed from the microsperic form ( sexual form ) microsperic! And remains as a lump around it Salish sea species names for Ammonia and Elphidium have changed! Known as isogametes December 2020, at 23:42 [ clarification needed ] Elphidium crawls using a type pseudopod!

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