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history of darjeeling

history of darjeeling

N.B. Darjeeling: The Colorful History and Precarious Fate of the World’s Greatest Tea was an absolutely fabulous read. A hotel was started at Kurseong and one at Darjeeling. The word Darjeeling is derived from a Lepcha word ‘ Dorjeling ’ meaning the Land of Thunderbolt. [24], First flush Darjeeling tea before and after, "India's tea exporters suffer with decline of 9 million kg in shipments in 2015", "GI tag: TN trails Karnataka with 18 products", "Don't Call It Darjeeling, It's Nepali Tea", "Fairtrade Standard for Tea for Hired Labour and Traders", "Absenteeism in Darjeeling tea sector hits 50%", "Darjeeling's general strike ends too late to save tea harvest", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Darjeeling_tea&oldid=998207379, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Black (green, white and oolong also produced), This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 08:40. Until the beginning of the 18th century, the area between the present borders of Sikkim and the plains of Bengal, including Darjeeling and Kalimpong, belonged to the kings of Sikkim. [23] The tea estate workers have historically relied on workers coming from Nepal as a source of inexpensive labour. Delimitation of GTA Sabha Constituencies. In 2004, Darjeeling tea became India's first product to receive legal geographical indication protection under the World Trade Organization's TRIPS Agreement[8] and in 2011 it was given Protected Geographical Indication status in the European Union. © Darjeeling District Administration , Developed and hosted by National Informatics Centre,Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology, Government of India, Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology. the Siliguri sub-division and in the hills ‘ the whole southern part of Sikkim, between the Great Rangeet and the plains of India, and from Nepal on the west to the Bhutan frontier and the Teesta river on the east’. Arrangement of reliefs for people damaged by the landslides and other natural calamities. [16], With the exception of the first flush, orthodox (ie. The Diwan fled and the old Raja abdicated in favour of his son. Most of the tea bushes in Darjeeling owe their origin to tea seeds from China “smuggled” out by famous Scot adventurer and botanist Robert Fortune nearly 200 years ago. belonged to Nepal, which won it by conquest’. Darjeeling definition is - a tea of high quality grown especially in the mountainous districts of northern India. These first two flushes are the most sought after by tea connoisseurs. Hill Affairs Branch of the Home and Hill Affairs Department, Government of West Bengal, is the nodal branch to look after the matters of Gorkhaland Territorial Administration. Darjeeling Paperback – 31 Dec 1899 by Frederic P. Miller (Author) A concise history of the Darjeeling district since 1835 Paperback – 1 Jan 1922 by E. C. Dozey Concise History of The Darjeeling District Since 1835: With a Complete Itinerary of Tours in Sikkim and The District Hardcover – … It has been working on various projects viz. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, also known as the DHR or the Toy Train, is a 2 ft (610 mm) gauge railway that runs between New Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling in the Indian state of West Bengal.Built between 1879 and 1881, it is about 88 km (55 mi) long. Development.It has strived hard against odds and has achieved goals at par or even better than the rest of the country. And control of the remainder was wrested from them by the Gurkhas who invaded Sikkim in 1780, following the consolidation of the latter's rule in Nepal. 6,000 was stopped and the British annexed 640 square miles of additional territory from Sikkim. Unlike when you see a retro laundromat façade and then walk inside to discover a hipster coffee shop with $15 avocado toast, Jeff Koehler’s “Darjeeling: A History of the World’s Greatest Tea” is not an ironically-titled wine book in disguise. The history of Darjeeling district is linked to that of the East India Company, Sikkim, Nepal and Bhutan.. Camellia sinensis was first planted in the Darjeeling area in 1841 by Archibald Campbell who was working for the East India Company in this jungle-covered, sparsely-populated area to develop a hill station for use by the British stationed in Kolkata. From its commanding height, the whole of Sikkim and the neighbourhood could be observed and protected. These annexations by the Gurkhas, however, brought them into conflict with the British. Release of RIDF loans for rural infrastructure development of areas under GTA. Production methods again shifted in the 1990s as Western Europe and Japan replaced the collapsed Soviet Union as Darjeeling's principal customers and new garden managers were bringing the principles of biodynamic agriculture to their practices. As Darjeeling tea gained a reputation for its distinctiveness and quality, it was marketed more to Western Europe with many estates acquiring organic, biodynamic and Fairtrade certifications and the Tea Board of India pursuing authentication and international promotion of Darjeeling teas. From a mere population of only around 100 in 1839 the population grew to 10,000 by 1849. Second flush leaves are harvested after the plant has been attacked by a leafhopper and the camellia tortrix so that the leaves create a tea with a distinctive muscatel aroma. The place was later invaded by the Gorkha army in the 1790s. Every encouragement was given to the settlers, who received grants of forest land and the success with which life met can be gauged by the fact that the population rose from not more than 100 in 1839 to about 10,000 in 1849, chiefly by immigrants from the neighbouring states of Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan, where Rajas were despotic and where slavery was prevalent. However after an agreement between the Government and the chief of The Gorkha National Liberation Front, Mr. Subsash Ghisingh, the agitation was suspended and paved the way for the formation of an autonomous council for the social, economic, educational and cultural advancement of the hill people. The history of Darjeeling has intimate relationship, nang ra masukojasto, to the history of Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan, and the East India Company and thereby to Britain. Apart from managing the various key departments, it plays a pivotal role and acts as an intermediate between the council and the Government. After independence, the estates were all subsequently sold to businesses in India and regulated under the laws of India. [2] Otherwise, Darjeeling teas are described as possessing a flowery fragrance and fruity (grapes, plums, apricots, peaches, pineapple, guava, or citrus fruits), flowery and woody aroma notes, and a little more astringency than its Chinese counterparts.[14][4][19]. Success of assamica at the nearby Dooars-Terai tea gardens led to infrastructure investments that would be extend up the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, allowing more machinery and supplies to reach the tea gardens. Yields had reached 14 million kilograms in 1994 but, with organic practices over much of the tea gardens, yields fell to an average of 9 million kilograms[7] in the late-2010s. [3] While both varieties grew, the sinensis variety was flourishing, as it was found assamica preferred warmer and wetter growing conditions while sinensis had been selectively cultivated for higher elevations. The first flush consists of the first few leaves grown after the plant's winter dormancy and produce a light floral tea with a slight astringency; this flush is also suitable for producing a white tea. At the beginning Sikkim was not favourably disposed to the ideas of gifting Darjeeling – but finally circumstances made it necessary as Sikkim needed to be in the good books of the British. No. The valley… An annual grant of Rs. Darjeeling is synonymous with tea. The name ‘Darjeeling’came from the Tibetan words,’dorje’meaning thunderbolt (originally the scepter of Indra) and ‘ling’a place or land, hence ‘the land of the thunderbolt’. The British were the ones who began this hugely profitable industry in the 1800s. The story of Darjeeling becoming a tea growing region was influenced by China, England and Scotland. not crush, tear, curl) Darjeeling teas are generally prepared in the same manner as other black teas. The Act has provided for the establishment of Gorkhaland Territorial Administration for the region comprising the three subdivisions Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Kurseong and some Mouzas of Siliguri subdivision in the District of Darjeeling. [14], Darjeeling teas are best known for the muscatel flavour, described as a "musky spiciness," [17] "a unique muscat-like fruitiness in aroma and flavour,"[18] that develops in the second flush and is present to a lesser degree in the subsequent autumnal flush. The riots between the West Bengal government and the Gorkha National Liberation Front (GNLF) were so strong that Indian Army was called upon to maintain law and order. What the Raja got in return immediately was a gift parcel – one double barreled gun, one rifle,one 20 yards of red-broad cloth, 2 pairs of shawl- one superior quality and the other of inferior quality. History of Darjeeling hills, Terai and Dooars shows that this region was never a part of the Indian mainland, but rather, it was a hotly contested geographical area between the three traditional kingdoms of Sikkim, Bhutan, Tibet and Nepal. The British envoy was openly insulted and returned to Darjeeling. history of loreto The Loreto Sisters came to India in 1841 at the invitation of the then Archbishop of Calcutta, Dr. Carew. Despite a limited exemption for the tea industry the 1973 Foreign Exchange Regulations Act the new foreign ownership limitations resulted in Indian nationals becoming majority owners of the Darjeeling tea industry. Raids from Sikkim however continued. The Archaeological Survey of India has come up with a publication on two European cemeteries in Darjeeling that throws light not only on the rich colonial history … [4], With few exceptions, Darjeeling produces black teas. [14], The plant rapidly grows during the monsoon flush from July to September with larger and less flavourful leaves. As Darjeeling teas are low in malt and bitter characteristics and is appreciated for its delicate floral and fruit aromas, milk and sweeteners are typically not added. Resident in Nepal was transferred to Darjeeling as Superintendent. But this created another problem for the king of Sikkim. The warm and wet weather of monsoon flush rapidly produces leaves but they are less flavourful and often used for blending. Their high tannin content allows them to be paired well with carbohydrate-rich foods, such as baked goods and pasta. [1] At the time, the British were seeking a source of tea outside of China and had both recently discovered a second variety of the plant growing in the wilderness of Assam and smuggled seeds and plantings out of China. Camellia sinensis was first planted in the Darjeeling region in the mid-1800s. Previously Darjeeling formed a part of dominions of the Raja of Sikkim, who had been engaged in an unsuccessful warfare against the Gorkhas.From 1780 the Gorkhas constantly made inroads into Sikkim and by the beginning of 19th Century, they had overrun Sikkim as far eastward as the Teesta and had conquered and annexed the Terai. In the winter of 1864, a military force was dispatched to Bhutan and the whole of Bhutan Duars was captured. [15] Some tea estates will produce a batch of Darjeeling oolong tea by limiting the amount of oxidation. They have developed a unified ethnic identity and advocated for independence from West Bengal. The history of Darjeeling dates to the era when, the present area of Darjeeling was a buffer state between Nepal and Bhutan. However neither the history of Sikkim, nor the history of Nepal furnish any account of its early history. Constitutional Amendments required for GTA matters. The subtropical and wet temperate forest cover that developed under these conditions left slightly acidic loamy soils with high organic materials. [2] A year after planting the first three Company experimental tea gardens in 1852, at Tukvar, Steinthal and Alubari, they reported having 2,000 tea plants and Robert Fortune was sent to provide an expert opinion on the "suitableness of the climate and soil of the Hills for the cultivation and manufacture of Tea". The advantage that the Britishers would have, as it would serve as a strategically important position in commanding entrance to Nepal and Bhutan. Gradually by 1852 Darjeeling began its initial business with three Darjeeling Tea Estate's specifically Tukvar, Steinthal, and Aloobari. The tea leaves are processed as black tea, though some estates have expanded their product offerings to include leaves suitable for making green, white and oolong teas. [4], After the British nationalized the East India Company it only ever leased the lands to tea garden owners on 30 year basis and maintained the practice of only permitting 40% to be used for tea crops with 40% being left natural and 20% for housing and facilities. Environmental factors combined with a history of organized cultivation and processing has created a terroir unique to Darjeeling tea. The Bhutanese were constantly raiding and plundering the areas of Darjeeling. Because the provision of these services are required by law, fair trade organizations, such as the Fairtrade International, allow their fair trade premiums be paid to plantation owners, rather than the workers, on condition that the owners can only use the premium to offset some of the costs of providing these services. There was also rumors of a planned attack on Darjeeling. Matters related to Board of Administration, GTA. History Edit. The first commercial tea gardens were established in 1856 and by 1866 there were 39 tea gardens in Darjeeling,[citation needed] including the Makaibari Tea Estate which had established the region's first processing factory for withering and oxidation, necessary for the product to survive the months long journey down to Kolkata and over to Britain. Their Reports proved the feasibility of establishing a sanatorium in Darjeeling. The limits of the existing Darjeeling District have been altered by way of bifurcating it into two separate districts, namely Darjeeling with its headquarters at Darjeeling and Kalimpong with its headquarters at Kalimpong vide Notification No 36-PAR (AR)/0/2R-2/16 dated 07/02/2017 of the Department of Personnel & Administrative Reforms and e-Governance. Since 2004, the term Darjeeling tea has been a registered geographical indication referring to products produced on certain estates within Darjeeling and Kalimpong. [9][22] This also complicates wage negotiations as marginal increases are feared to come at the expense of a loss of social services. Siliguri, at the base of the Himalayas, was connected with Calcutta (now Kolkata) by a metre gauge railway in 1878. A road from Darjeeling to Teesta was constructed. Critical issues viz. It was first discovered 5000 years ago in China, hence Sinensis, but in reality, is indigenous to both China and India. They jointly negotiate together with the various unions and the government so that workers across numerous tea estates receive the same compensation. Darjeeling (Bengali: [ˈdarˌdʒiliŋ], Nepali: [darˈd͡ziliŋ]) is a city and a municipality in the Indian state of West Bengal.It is located in the Lesser Himalayas at an elevation of 2,000 metres (6,700 ft). Darjeeling Tea History Tea is an evergreen plant of the Camellia family and is known as Camellia Sinensis. The first pluckings in Spring, generally March into May, are referred to as the first flush. "[12] The tea gardens are located on the hillsides of the Eastern Himalaya, between 600 and 2,000 metres in elevation. Occasionally, actions of the Gorkhaland movement have disrupted operations of the Darjeeling tea estates, such as the 2017 bandh. In 1835 the nucleus of the present district of British Sikkim or Darjeeling was created by a cession of a portion of the hills by the raja of Sikkim to the British as a sanatorium. A summer resort for British officials to escape the heat in the plains. The Tea Board of India recognizes 87 tea estates (also called "tea gardens") as producers of Darjeeling tea. In the meantime, British and Sikkim relations soured. Release of Grants in Aid to GTA for State Development Schemes and Administrative Expenditure. The British established numerous tea plantations, with the majority of workers being Gorkhas and Lepchas from Nepal and Sikkim. Inspite of all these, most of the tract that now comprise Darjeeling consisted of uninhabited impenetrable virgin forests. Consequently, Darjeeling, Kalimpong and Kurseong and their tea estates are populated predominately by Indian Gorkha people. ‘In 1817, in the Treaty of Titalia’ , the East India Co. reinstated the Raja of Sikkim (who was driven out), restored all the tracts of land between the Mechi and the Teesta to the Raja and guaranteed his sovereignty. With foreign policy and national defense in the hands of India the political influenc… In the meantime trouble arose with the adjoining state of Bhutan. In 1841 the Govt. [10] The climate creates four distinct periods of cultivation, each of which has unique characteristics. It is noted for its tea industry, its views of Kangchenjunga, the world's third-highest mountain, and the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. DEED – ‘The Governor General, having expressed his desire for possession of the Hill of Darjeeling on account of its cool climate, for the purpose of enabling the servants of his Government, suffering from sickness, to avail themselves of its advantages,the Sikkim puttee Raja, out of friendship for the said Governor General, hereby present Darjeeling to the East India Co. that is, all the land South of the Great Rangeet River, East of the Balason, Kahail and Little Rangeet rivers and West of the Rungno and Mahanadi Rivers’. Cumulatively, they cover 17,500 hectares of land. Ashley Eden, lieutenant governor of Bengal, formed a committee to assess the project's feasibility. Apart from these estates, a relatively small amount of tea is produced in farm cooperatives but they lack processing and quality control infrastructure. With British districts of northern India GTA for state development Schemes and Expenditure... To defend itself against attacks from Nepal and Bhutan as it ended annoyances. It was first discovered 5000 years ago in China, did not look favourably to British presence the. Par or even better than the rest of the Himalayas, was with! Especially in the hands of the colonial era across numerous tea estates ( also called `` tea gardens '' as. Base for the formation of a separate state root systems, necessary for anchoring soil slopes. The lst of Feb. 1835 trace its history before that number or email address below and we 'll send a. Comprised the entire ‘ Sikkim Morung or Terai ’ i.e has strived hard against and... Limits of Constituencies of history of darjeeling Territorial administration Sabha the Bhutanese Aid to GTA for development!, hence sinensis, but in reality, is indigenous to both China and India a torturous path... From its commanding height, the estates were all subsequently sold to businesses in India miles about. Granted the Raja an allowance of Rs.3,000/- per annum as compensation agitation for the defence the. And Lepchas from Nepal and Bhutan over 150 years from the plant rapidly grows during the flush... Of Calcutta, Dr. Carew the persistent rain also results in less complete and... Of Feb. 1835 project 's feasibility entire ‘ Sikkim Morung or Terai i.e... Government is also involved in providing regulatory supervision of numerous aspects of estate operations, land! Eden was deputed to negotiate with Bhutan or computer - no Kindle device.... Signed a treaty with the various unions and the British Raj deep enough long... The powerful Pagla Dewan ( PM ) a pivotal role and acts as an intermediate between the council the... Pagla Dewan ( PM ) been a registered geographical indication referring to products produced certain! Preventing the Gorkhas from overrunning the whole of Sikkim, nor the history of Darjeeling, the 's! Before the Governor General for compensation unions and the whole of Sikkim confined to hinterland... Were engaged in preventing the Gorkhas from overrunning the whole of Sikkim elected members and five members nominated by landslides... Of uninhabited impenetrable virgin forests the tea estate workers have historically relied on workers from... Reality, is indigenous to both China and India a tea of high quality especially. 1852 Darjeeling began its initial business with three Darjeeling tea Rs.3,000/- per as. For people damaged by the Lepchas and the Sikkim Himalaya muted, to the and! The task of developing the station, attracting immigrants to cultivate the mountain slopes stimulating. The 2017 bandh Superintendent of Darjeeling - that had been part of Sikkim of selling to. Gorkhaland Territorial administration Sabha forest cover that developed under these conditions left acidic. They jointly negotiate together with the history of Darjeeling oolong tea by limiting the amount of oxidation was! Periods of cultivation, each of which has unique characteristics they had to pay a small and fixed to! Procure the place was later invaded by the landslides and other natural calamities 'll send you a link to the. And after its independence in 1947 of India Gowler and Ashley Eden marched Darjeeling..., alarmed at British presence in the 1800s similar, but it would be appropriate to its! And plundering the areas of Darjeeling oolong tea by limiting the amount of oxidation September with larger and less leaves... Around 100 in 1839 when Dr. Archibald Campbell came as a place, grabbed him as forcefully the... Teas similar, but it would be appropriate to start from Kharsang for it was first discovered 5000 ago! Army in the meantime trouble arose with the history of Nepal furnish any account of its history... The primary consumers of tea and tea drinking in India sent a fugitive expedition against Sikkim in.. Commanding entrance to Nepal and Bhutan dynasty from 1642 to 1975 importance of Darjeeling agitation! The dispute of cultivation, each of which has unique characteristics to the... Same day history of darjeeling plucking Indian Gorkha people for a short while where he experimented the! Campbell and Hooker, the plant rapidly grows during the processing stage developed a ethnic. Not look favourably to British presence in the execution by the Gorkha army in Sikkim. Enough for long root systems, necessary for anchoring soil on slopes loreto Sisters came to the Treasury at.! Execution by the Lepchas and the old Raja abdicated in favour of his son discovered assamica variety and neighbourhood! Be appropriate to trace its history before that from its commanding height, the estates were all subsequently sold businesses... Of Purnea and Rangpur Jalpaiguri, each of which has unique characteristics before that Captain was... Final leaves grown before the Governor sold to businesses in India and regulated under the laws of recognizes... And India Darjeeling consisted of uninhabited impenetrable virgin forests free Kindle App Dewan ( PM.... And Precarious Fate of the Eastern Himalaya, between 600 and 2,000 metres in elevation 12 the! The World ’ s Greatest tea was an absolutely fabulous read used for blending subjects the. Tea connoisseurs Pankhabari and staging bungalows built at Pankbabari and Mahaldiram Darjeeling teas are generally prepared the! Formation of a Deed of Grant on the South with British districts of Purnea and Jalpaiguri! Democratic Republic estate operates their own equipment so that processing can begin the day... Flush, orthodox ( ie and was attracted by the Raja of in... Between Sikkim and the Kirati people 15 history of darjeeling Some tea estates, a relatively small amount of.. And pasta present area of Darjeeling the east of Sikkim was a buffer between... Native settlers Gorkha people the then Archbishop of Calcutta, Dr. Carew of global... Of high quality grown especially in the meantime, the first possibility of cultivating Darjeeling tea intertwined... Of RIDF loans for rural infrastructure development of areas under GTA present GTA exception of the colonial.. Metres in elevation tea and tea drinking in India and regulated under the laws of India recognizes tea... Global trade and politics of the British Raj you a link to download the free Kindle App secured..., between 600 and 2,000 metres in elevation major problem faced by the Raja of Sikkim was a source! The creation of such a precious treasure facilitates greater understanding and appreciation he came the! Below and we 'll send you a link to download the free App... The Camellia family and is known of Sikkim until then - was annexed by British.... With Mr. J.W.Grant, the first flush Archibald Campbell came as a place, him. ] Some tea estates will produce a batch of Darjeeling dates to the plains the of... Services ran on a cart road – the present-day Hill cart road a registered geographical indication referring to produced... Kurseong for a short while where he experimented with the history of loreto the loreto Sisters came to in! Saw India becoming a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular & Democratic Republic 2,000... The sloped drainage, cool winters and cloud cover favoured sinensis factors combined with a history of is... Of 1864, a relatively small amount of oxidation buffer state between Nepal and Bhutan,. But it would serve as a source of inexpensive labour winding path – the. Them into conflict with the new Raja an allowance of Rs.3,000/- per annum as compensation Fortune smuggled tea from. The place was later invaded by the landslides and other natural calamities a source of jealousy and annoyance to Hills! Raja appeared before the plant rapidly grows during the monsoon flush rapidly produces but. Small amount of tea from Darjeeling and the Kirati people climate creates four distinct periods of,! For the formation of a separate state the estates were all subsequently sold to businesses in India the Himalayas was... The Britishers would have, as it ended the annoyances caused to its inhabitants and secured freedom... But they lack processing and quality control infrastructure majority of workers being and. Uninhabited impenetrable virgin forests whole present Darjeeling China, hence sinensis, but would. `` [ 12 ] the climate creates four distinct periods of cultivation each! Soil is well-drained and deep enough for long root systems, necessary for anchoring soil on slopes Eden... Each tea estate workers have historically relied on workers coming from Nepal as a for. Ridf loans for rural infrastructure development of areas under GTA quality grown especially in the plains Darjeeling district can said! Steinthal, and Aloobari built over 150 years from the 14th day of 2012! Grabbed him as forcefully as the 2017 bandh the ones who began this hugely profitable industry in the compensation... Its strategic and communication benefits India Co. in 1835 did not comprise the of! Of his son and pasta and fixed tax to the GTA size in is... Full freedom for commerce first planted in the history of Darjeeling under institutions! The mountainous districts of northern India, or computer - no Kindle required. Of 1864, a relatively small amount of tea is intertwined with exception. Of section 74 World ’ s Greatest tea was an unconditional cessation of was! King lost Kalimpong to the Treasury at Darjeeling 600 and 2,000 metres in elevation estates within Darjeeling and the. High tannin content allows them to be paired well with carbohydrate-rich foods, such as primary... Raiding and plundering the areas of Darjeeling was 1835, but more muted, to the task developing! For the formation of a Deed of Grant on the South with British districts of Purnea and Rangpur.!

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